Climate Insecurities in Indonesia: Implications and Challenges for Defence Transformation

This paper seeks to accomplish three broad objectives. First, to identify and assess key climate insecurities and vulnerabilities in Indonesia. Second, to further explore the ramifications of these insecurities for the Indonesian National Defense Forces (TNI) at the strategic, institutional and operational levels. Such assessment is crucial considering that the military has to deal with many of the security implications of climate change taking place today and in the future. And finally, to assess how such climate insecurities could be considered and formulated to be one of the key driving forces for the TNI’s ongoing defense reform process.

The paper was published as  MacArthur Asia Security Initiative Policy Paper Series No. 16 (download full paper here)


Double Jeopardy: Climate Insecurities and Their Implications for Asian Armed Forces

Below is the abstract for my paper in Defence Studies, Vol. 11,  No. 2 (2011)


This paper seeks to explore and assess the implications of climate insecurities for the armed forces of the Asia-Pacific region, and in particular Southeast Asia. It identifies key issues and trends related to climate insecurities – in the areas of mass migration, diseases, natural disasters and the scarcity of water, food and other resources. It then details the implications for armed forces in the region with reference to the strategic, institutional and operational realms, and contends that climate change will become both a burden multiplier and a threat multiplier in the decades to come.

The paper can be downloaded here.